372 HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION The distrust of traditional knowledge which is implicit in the first Essay becomes explicit when he goes on to examine the general principles underlying Intellectual Education. His discussion is simply a one-sided elaboration of the Anschauung doctrine of Pestalozzi, who was his only master in educational theory. He sets forth certain formal principles of education, as, for example, that in education one should proceed from the simple to the complex; but the sum and substance of them all is that education is an individual process, which begins with the concrete experiences of the pupil, calls for learning by personal discovery, and approves itself satisfactory by creating a pleasurable excitement. The point of view, indeed, though professedly,in agreement with Pestalozzi's, is really more like that.of the Emile, which Spencer had never read. The coincidence of Spencer's views with those of Rousseau is still more complete in the Essay on Moral Education. " When the child falls or runs his head against the table, it suffers a pain, the repetition of which tends to make it more careful, and by repetition of such experiences it is eventually disciplined into proper guidance of its movements." In a case like this, he goes on to say, " Nature illustrates to us the true theory and practice of moral discipline." Instead of imposing an artificial punishment by an arbitrary infliction of pain, the wise parent will allow the misdeeds of his child to bring its own punishment. Here the assumption is that physical laws and moral laws are not fundamentally different. " The ultimate standards by which all men judge of behaviour," he says, " are the resulting happiness or misery.*' All conduct that brings pain, whether it be the burning of a finger or stealing, is bad, and its unpleasant conse- quences for the individual are at once a proof of its badness and a reason for avoiding it afterwards. Individualism can go no farther than this. In his desire to make"afl 'education, moral as well as intellectual, spring out of the child's own experience, Spencer has obliterated the distinction between the natural and the moral. The fact that the essence of punishment is not in the particular form it takes but in the expression of social disapproval implied in it, is hidden from him by his unwillingness to recognize that individual life is nothing in itself, but derives its character from its participation in the ideals and laws of a community.